Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma


Stem Cell Differentiation  

  Ever wonder what a stem cell really does? What does it change into?

Here is a chart of how a haemopoietic stem cell can differentiate into other types of blood cells. Click on the chart below for a larger view.

From a medical point of view there are three types of Stem Cells that you hear about. (Though there may be others that are less well known)

Peripheral Blood and Bone Marrow Stem Cells
There is no controversy surrounding this type of Stem Cells. Stem Cells collected from the peripheral blood or bone marrow have been used for decades to do bone marrow transplants and stem cell transplants. Since these stem cells are collected from living persons with no harm done to the donor there are no ethical issues involved. In fact in the case of an autologous transplant the patient themselves is the donor.

Cord Blood Stem Cells
These stem cells are collected from the discarded umbilical cord during a live birth. The umbilical cord is a very rich source of stem cells. Nevertheless the quantity is still very small and at this time transplants with this type of stem cells are limited to children or small adults. Science is investigating ways to increase the amount of cord blood stem cells to make this type of transplant available to adults. Much of the research is focused on using two or more cord donations that match, or almost match.

Embryonic Stem Cells
This is the type that is causing so much controversy and an ethical dilemma around the world. Embryonic stem cells are considered the most valuable ones because they are so early in their development they have the potential to become any type of tissue at all (pluripotent), not just blood cells. This means they have the potential to cure a vast array of diseases and injuries.

Yet in order to obtain this type of stem cells, a human embryo must be destroyed very early in its development. Usually about one week after fertilization. The cells are then encouraged to multiply without maturing into any particular type of stem cell. Clearly this presents scientists and the world at large with a very difficult ethical, and moral dilemma which has yet to be solved. 




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